The Emoneau Family of the Principality of Montb四iard and Lunenburg Township, N.S.

 

Kenneth S. Paulsen, Ph.D.

 

NEXUS, 12 (1995): 146-152

 

         The settlers of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia have been referred to collectively as the ヤForeign Protestants,ユ an eighteenth century term for non-British emigrants who settled in British North America during the 1750s.  Among the 1453 Foreign Protestants who settled at Lunenburg in 1753 were 212 people in 66 families from the Principality of Montb四iard (M嗄pelgard in German), a small French-speaking Lutheran territory, part of the Holy Roman Empire and subject to the Catholic Duke of W殲ttemberg.  The principality, surrounded by France on three sides, bordered the Swiss Confederation on the southeast.  Montb四iardians were Lutheran, while their linguistic Protestant compatriots in France were Huguenot (in the Calvinist tradition).  Since 1793, when the principality was seized by Revolutionary France, Montb四iard has part of the French Republic.

When the British Crown decided to settle Nova Scotia with foreign Protestants to offset the Catholic Acadian population, Lutherans from Montb四iard were among the German, Swiss-German and Swiss-French families who came to Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1750-1752 and later to the newly-established township of Lunenburg.  Ethnically the second largest group in Lunenburg, the Montb四iardians comprised about 13% of the population in 1753 and 14% in 1760.  In contrast the German were 69.5% of the population in 1753, the Swiss-Germans 8%, the Swiss-French 4.5% and the British 2.5%.

         Like their German neighbours, Montb四iardian settlers came to Nova Scotia willingly, attracted by the offer of free land -- 50 acres per head of household with ten additional acres per dependent.  To the farmers and artisans such an offer meant the opportunity to leave behind Europeユs the semi-feudal landholding systems and other socio-economic problems.  For Lutheran Montb四iardians, subject to a Catholic overlord, religion was also a factor.

         The British effort to recruit foreign Protestants to Nova Scotia was successful, but Crown authorities in Halifax found themselves unprepared to handle large numbers of immigrants.  Uncertainties about the Acadians and the Miユkmaq Indians prevented the Crown from placing the new colonists in settlements among the Acadian population, which had been the original intention.  The authorities housed them temporarily in Halifax and put them to work on public projects to pay for their passage to Nova Scotia.  As this situation became intolerable, the Foreign Protestants petitioned to be settled somewhere permanently.  The governor finally decided to create a foreign Protestant settlement rather than risk dispersing them among the Acadians.  The Crown examined two locations -- Musquodoboit on the Eastern Shore, and Merliguesh on the South Shore.  The latter region was chosen for its harbour and its agricultural potential.

         The Foreign Protestants, transported aboard government vessels from Halifax, arrived on the forested shores of Merliguesh in May and June 1753.  The Crown surveyor laid out Lunenburg townsite and oversaw grants of the town lots during the early summer.  While the military supervised settlers in building palisades and houses, the surveyor laid out small garden lots to the east of the townsite and 597 thirty-acre farm lots to the west and south along Merliguesh Bay, Mahone Bay and the LaHave River.  The 30-acre lots were short of the 50 acres promised, but given the rising tension in the 1750s between the French and English, the townshipユs reduced size made sense for security reasons.  In the 1760s, after eliminating the French menace to British North America, the Crown fulfilled its promise and granted 300-acre lots to the remaining Lunenburg settlers by lottery.  During the 1760s the township received an additional 100,000 acres above the original land grants (totalling more than 18,000 acres) of 1753.

         The Lunenburg settlersユ first decade was difficult.  They were dependent upon the Crown for provisioning until 1758, in part because of Miユkmaq raids on Lunenburg during the Seven Years War (1756-63).  After several such raids on outlying farms and islands, many settlers left the community altogether, while others withdrew temporarily to Lunenburg town for protection.  With the end of hostilities in British North America in 1759-60, the community stabilized and grew.

         Many settlers prospered during the War for American Independence.  Demand for foodstuffs and other goods in the provincial capital brought cash into the local economy.  Frederic Emoneau (ca. 1724-91) probably did well during the Revolution.  According to the 1770 Lunenburg census the average farmer in Lunenburg had grown about 35 bushels of grain in 1769, an amount above the minimum required for family survival in colonial America, according the historian Bettye Pruitt [1].  While the average Lunenburg farmer grew an average 35 bushels of grain, Frederic Emoneau grew 110 bushels to support a family of five on his 30-acre farm [2]..  Clearly he produced a marketable surplus.

         As with the Deladerays [NEXUS 10 (1993): 152-155], local records do not always include the deaths of members of the Emoneau family.  Since several Emoneau children do not appear in the church records after their births, they likely died young.  The history of the Emoneau family presented here is drawn from church registers, censuses, ship passenger lists, deeds and land grants.  Important information was also found in the provisioning lists (which acted as a census) and court records, including the published transcript of a 1791 murder trial.  The records reveal the prosperous and tragic aspects of the Emoneau family experience in Lunenburg.  The history below examines the Emoneau for the first four generations (including the children of the fourth generations).

         The name Esmonnot appears in Montb四iard as early as 1444, in the records of the village of Bethencourt.  Later the name spread to the town of Montb四iard and the villages of Exincourt, Raynans, Saint-Julien and Issans [3].  The Nova Scotia family probably had its origins in one of those localities.  The Emoneaus of Lunenburg took passage as two family units: Samuel Emoneau (ca. 1702-52) with his wife and daughters, and Samuelユs son, Frederic and his wife.  They embarked on the Speedwell, which left Rotterdam 16 May 1752 and probably arrived in Halifax in late July [4].  Samuel Emoneau was indebted for Florins 240.5.0; his son for Florins 162.14.0.  Debt for passage to North America was common among the Foreign Protestants and others immigrants.  They contracted to pay for their passage through a labour exchange in Nova Scotia, but the vast majority of the Foreign Protestants, unable to find other work and reluctant to perform public works, never fully repaid their debts.

         The Emoneau family suffered greatly during the first few years in Nova Scotia.  According to the victualling list of August-October 1752, Samuel Emoneau had already died; the exact date is not known [5].  His wife died the following spring, according to parish records of St. Paulユs Anglican Church, Halifax.  Presumably Anne Emoneau died before June 1755 as she appears neither on the Lunenburg victualling list nor in marriage records.  Fredericユs wife, Elizabeth, apparently died at Lunenburg after June 1755 -- when she appeared on the victualling list -- and before 3 Feb. 1756, when Frederic Emoneau married Elizabeth (-----) Feindel, the pregnant widow of Georg Jacob Feindel [6].

         The circumstances of Fredericユs marriage to the widow Feindel raise an interesting question regarding the parentage of their first child.  Jean George Emoneau, son of Elizabeth (-----) (Feindel) Emoneau, was baptized 29 March 1756 [7].  At the time of her second marriage, on 3 February 1756, Elizabeth was seven to eight months pregnant, which would place conception of the child in late June or July 1755.  In June 1755, the first Elizabeth Emoneau was still living, according the victualling list.  Halifax Anglican Church records mention the burial of a John Findal 7 December 1755 [8].  The only decedent in Lunenburg and Halifax records with a name similar メJohn Findalモ was one Georg Jacob Feindel.  Jean George Emoneauユs paternity will probably never be proved, but Georg Jacob Feindel was very likely the father of a posthumous son who bore the surname Emoneau as a result of his mother Elizabethユs re-marriage.

         At Lunenburg Frederic Emoneau and his second wife raised three children (including Jean George).  Jean George and his [half-] brother Frederic survived to adulthood and married.  The third child, Susanna, drowned at age ten in 1767.  This generation was as ill-fated as the previous.  Jean George and his wife had four daughters before he died six years into his marriage.  One of these four died of smallpox in 1776; another was murdered in 1791.  Given the European naming practices common in early Lunenburg, it is unclear whether Catherine Marguerite or Catherine Elizabeth was the murdered daughter, although it was probably the latter.  The first Catherine may have died before the birth of the second, but quite possibly both were living at the same time; it was common French and German practice to give children (especially boys) the same first name and a distinguishing second name by which they were usually known.  Catherine Marguerite probably died young and unrecorded since there is no marriage record for her.  Only the last child, Mary Elizabeth (Emoneau) Eisenhauer, is known to have left issue.

         Until 1791, when Frederic Emoneau, his wife Elizabeth, and one of their granddaughters were murdered by Fredericユs godson, George Frederick Bouteillier, and his brother, John, there had been no murdeers at Lunenburg since the Miユkmaq raids on the 1750s.  In the early morning hours of Saturday, 19 March 1791, Nicholas Eisenhauer and Joseph Contoy (Contois) [9] of Second Peninsula saw the Emoneau house burning across the bay on First Peninsula.  The winter of 1790-91 had been cold, and Contoy and Eisenhauer were able to cross the inlet on solid ice.  When they reached the Emoneau house, they found Fredericユs charred, clothed remains, but nothing of his wife and granddaughter.  A short distance from the house, they discovered Fredericユs hat and a pool of frozen blood in the snow.  Moccasin tracks were found as well.

         At this point the evidence suggested murder, but no one knew for sure.  Circumstantial evidence from other witnesses that implicated George Frederick and John Bouteillier, who were indicted for making:

 

...an assault...with certain large sticks of no value, which they severally in their hands then and there held, [upon] him the said Frederick Eminaud in and upon the head, breast, back, belly, sides and other parts of the body ノ. [They] then and there feloniously, willfully and of their malice afore-thought, divers times did strike and beat ノ him ... with the sticks aforesaid, several mortal strokes, wounds and bruises in and upon the head, breast, back, belly, sides, and other parts of the body ノ of which mortal strokes, wounds and bruises he then and there instantly died.[10]

 

         During the trial, William Cheney, the husband of Susannah (Bouteillier) Cheney, indicated that he had not seen George Frederick and John Boutelier either at the schooner belonging to their brother, David, or on his way back to his mother-in-lawユs house about 6 p.m. on Friday, 18 March.  The defendants had told William Cheney they would meet David Bouteillier at Indian Point, about a two-hour journey from their motherユs house on the Northwest Range across Mahone Bay.  Susannah Cheney testified that her brothers had left between 2 and 3 p.m. to meet David Bouteillier and his schooner.  She also said that George Frederick and John never their motherユs house after arriving there Wednesday, and that they spent the previous night at Emoneauユs house, sharing supper with them.  She further mentioned that they had a tomahawk and moccasins, uncommon in Lunenburg [11].  Susannahユs account was corroborated by a fourth brother John Peter Bouteillier who lived at home with their mother, Catherine.  Yet another brother, Joseph Bouteillier, who was visiting his motherユs home when David arrived, gave a similar account; he said that George Frederick and John had visited the Emoneaus on Tuesday and spent the night there.  Lastly, David Boutelier testified that his brothers arrived aboard his schooner two hours before sunrise on Saturday, 19 March, and stayed only long enough to sleep.  According to David, his brothers had originally planned to travel Halifax with him but left on their own, saying they needed to return to Tatamagouche.  David testified they had an axe with them [12].

         Surviving testimony suggests that the Bouteillier brothers took considerably more time than the two hours necessary to cross the ice from Martinユs Brook or Maderユs Cove to Oakland or Indian Point on 18 March.  The late winter ice in Mahone Bay was broken in places, and the evening of 18/19 March had been foggy.  However, all indications are that the Bouteilliers used their flat to cross Mahone Bay.

         The remaining trial witnesses were either neighbours of the Emoneaus or residents of Lunenburg township.  George Michael Smith/Schmidt, a neighbour, testified that on Wednesday, Frederick Emoneau had mentioned the Bouteilliersユ unexpected visit Tuesday evening.  Smith also recalled Emoneau telling him that he was to receive 」50 on Thursday [13].  James Stewart, the attorney who published the trial transcript, implied that Frederick Emoneau may also have mentioned the 」50 to his godson.

         George B喇ner [Boehner] (an ancestor of the author) testified that he saw tracks leading, originating where the Bouteilliersユ flat had been moored, leading to and from the murder site.  These moccasin tracks had run through the woods -- not along the common roads or paths -- and that the footprints varied in size suggesting two persons walking single file [14].  The Bouteillier brothers had two pairs of moccasins when they left their motherユs house, but were not wearing them, according to their siblingsユ testimony.  Andreas Jung, who accompanied B喇ner tracing the tracks, confirmed B喇nerユs testimony.  Peter Langille and George Thethoff placed the Bouteillier brothers at Martinユs Brook mill about 6 p.m. Friday.  Peter Langille stated that he resided at Northwest and recognized the two men as the Bouteilliers from Tatamagouche.  Like Thethoff, he noted that the Bouteilliers had a tomahawk and snowshoes [15].  That Friday evening between 5 and 7 p.m, John Baukman (Bachman) observed them trying to cross the ice between his house on Second Peninsula and Philip Rothenhauserユs on First Peninsula, and that they were forced to turn back towards Calbachユs (Kaulbach) Mill [16].  Baukmanユs neighbour, John Lay, saw two men trying to cross the ice; they drew away before he could ascertain their identities [17].

         Upon examination the Bouteilliers claimed that they had visited only their motherユs house; both said that they had landed their flat at Martinユs Brook on Wednesday morning (16 March), having spent the night on the water.  They differed in the time they claimed to have left their motherユs house at the Northwest Range; George Frederick said they had left at noon on Friday 18 March, returned to Martinユs Brook and arrived at Davidユs schooner about 8 p.m., while John stated that they had left their motherユs house around 5 p.m., then went to Martinユs Brook and arrived at the schooner about 8 or 9 p.m.  John had further stated that he had not seen Frederic Emoneau in four years; George Frederick had not seen him in three [18].

         After the testimonies of the witnesses and the defendants, chief justice Thomas Andrew Strange of the Court of Oyer and Terminer summarized the case for the jury.  He stated that the Bouteilliers were indicted for the intentional murder of Frederic Emoneau.  The judge surmised that both had beaten him to death and that John gave the final blow with the tomahawk.

         Because the evidence presented was circumstantial and no one had seen the Bouteilliers at the crime scene, the judge charged the jury, after carefully examining the witnessesユ statements, to consider:

 

1. Did death result from murder, or from an accidental house fire?

2., If there was a murder, who committed it?

 

         After one and a half hoursユ deliberations, the jury found the defendants guilty Frederic Emoneauユs murder.  The judge surmised, based upon the evidence presented, that the Emoneaus were murdered late at night and the house deliberately burned with the bodies to destroy evidence of the murders.  On 5 May 1791, Judge Strange, stating that the motive in the crime was financial, sentenced the brothers to hang on the site of Frederick Emoneauユs house; the sentence was carried out 9 May.

         On the day before their execution, the Bouteilliers confessed to Rev. Richard Money that they had indeed come to Lunenburg to murder Frederic Emoneau.  John had thought of thescheme, and both had planned the crime months in advance.  After dinner on Friday, 18 May, they asked their hosts if they might stay the night.  At 9 p.m., when Frederic Emoneau went out to the barn to collect hay for his guestsユ bedding, they followed him outside and beat him to death with sticks (thinking mistakenly that no blood would be spilt), then went back into the house and similarly killed Elizabeth and Catherine, who had tried to escape through a window.  The brothers smashed a wooden chest hoping to find money, but were disappointed to find only 」10.  In their confession, they claimed not to have spoken with Emoneau about money.  Before leaving they brought Fredericユs body inside, and set the house afire to destroy evidence of the murders [19].

         Some important physical evidence which arrived at Lunenburg after the trial proved that the Boureilliers indeed committed the crime.  When arrested by the Halifax sheriff at Shubenacadie, the Bouteilliers had in their packs a shirt, a broken piece of red chalk and other items from the Emoneau house.  Although it arrived late, theisevidence confirmed the defendantsユ guilt, especially after the brothersユ confession to Rev. Money [20], as Frederic Emoneau, Jr. had the matching piece of red chalk in his possession [21].

 

         The Bouteillier brothers were each indicted on only one count of murder -- that of Frederic Emoneau.  It is implicit throughout the proceedings that the defendants were also on trial for the murders of Elizabeth and Catherine Emoneau, although not so formally charged.  However, neither the judge during the trial, nor Stewart in the published transcript, addressed the question of the deaths of the Emoneau women.  The brothersユ indictment on only one count of murder does not necessarily imply that the lives of women in the eighteenth century were less valued than men; since no physical remains of Elizabeth and Catherine were found (and given the limited forensic techniques of 1791), it would have been difficult to charge the Bouteilliers with their murders.  In addition, although the blood on the snow (later shown to be Fredericユs) indicated fould play, no other evidence linked the Bouteilliers to the murder of Elizabeth and Catherine Emoneau..  Given the nature of eighteenth-century justice, however, the Bouteilliersユ conviction on one count of murder still meant their execution for three.

         Despite the murders, the Emoneau family prospered.  Frederic and Elizabethユs younger (and only surviving) child, Frederic Emoneau, Jr.,  married Elizabeth Wambold in 1777; of their eleven children, four sons and most of the daughters produced families of their own..  In the nineteenth century, the name Emoneau evolved into Emeneau, Emenau, Emeno and Emino; indeed, the original European spelling of the name is no longer used.  Today descendants are found throughout Nova Scotia, Canada and New England.  As with many Maritimers of the 1870-1930 period, many came to the メBoston statesモ in pursuit for economic security.

         The short Emoneau genealogy below shows the role of church, cemetery, newspaper and (later) census records in reconstructing Nova Scotia families before civil recordkeeping began in 1864.  Sources cited (with record-group numbers at PANS, where appropriate) include:

 

Br. C.                          Brookside Cem., Bridgewater, N.S. (South Shore Gen. Soc. [hereafter SSGS], Cemetery Inscriptions for Lunenburg, Queens and Shelburne Counties [hereafter CILQSC], vol. 1, 1981)

D.R.L.                         Dutch Reformed Church, Lunenburg, N.S. (PANS, MG 4, vol. 86)

Ds.C.                          Dayspring, N.S. Cem. (SSGS, CILQSC, vol. 2, 1982)

H.C.L.                         Hillcrest Cem., Lunenburg (as for Ds.C.)

M.B.B.C.                   Bayview Cem., Mahone Bay, N.S.

NS VRs                      Nova Scotia Vital Records (at NEHGS)

O.F.C.                         メOld Frenchモ Cem., Lunenburg, N.S. (SSGS, CILQSC, vol. 3, 1985)

PANS                         Public Archives of Nova Scotia

P.W.                            The Presbyterian Witness and Evangelical Advocate (Halifax, N.S.); J. and S. McCormick, The Presbyterian Witness and Evangelical Advocate: Vital Statistics, 1848-1887 (1992)

S.J.A.L.                      St. Johnユs Anglican Church, Lunenburg, N.S. (PANS, MG 4, vol. 91)

S.M.C.                        St. Markユs Cem., Martinユs point, N.S. (see O.F.C.)

S.P.A.H.                     St. Paulユs Anglican Church, Halifax, N.S. (PANS, Micro: Churches: St. Paulユs Anglican, Halifax)

U.B.C.L.                     United Baptist Cem., Liverpool, N.S. (SSCS, CILQSC, vol. 4, 1991)

Z.L.L.                          Zion Lutheran Church, Lunenburg, N.S. (PANS, MG 4, vol. 88)

 

         1. Samuel1 Emoneau/Emonaud, b. Montb四iard ca. 1702, d. Halifax, N.S. between August and October 1752; m. Montb四iard Elizabeth ---------, b. there, d. Halifax 28 March 1753 (S.P.A.H.).  Samuel Emoneau with his wife and children came to Nova Scotia in 1752 on the Speedwell.  He was indebted for three freights totalling Fl. 240.5.0 for himself, his wife, and children Judith and Anne.  Samuel was unable to sign his name on the shipユs passenger list.  He and his family appear in the Halifax victualling list for Aug.-Oct. 1752 (Bellユs Register, MG 4, no. 109-111, at PANS and NEHGS).  Children:

         2. Frederic2 Emoneau; see below.

Judith Emoneau, b. Montb四iard, under 14 in 1752; at Lunenburg, N.S., in June 1755 she appears on victualling lists with the Gretteau family.  No marriage record has been found.

Anne Elizabeth Emoneau, b. Montb四iard ca. 1747-48, d. Halifax, N.S. between 17 March and 13 April 1753 (メList of German and Swiss Dead,モ PANS).

 

         2. Frederic2 Emoneau (Samuel1), b. Montb四iard ca 1724, d. First Peninsula, N.S. 19 March 1791; m.(1) Montb四iard Elizabeth (---------), who d. First Peninsula, N.S. between June and Dec. 1755; m.(2), as her second husband, Lunenburg, N.S. 3 Feb. 1756 (S.J.A.L.) Elizabeth (---------) Feindel, a natine of Zweibr歡ken, Palatinate, d. First Penisula 19 March 1791, widow of Georg Jacob Feindel.

         Frederic Emoneau and his first wife came to Nova Scotia in 1752 on the Speedwell with his parents, but paid for their passage separately.  Frederic was indebted for two freights, totalling Fl. 162.14.0.  His signature was crude, but he was apparently somewhat literate.  He appears on Halifax victualling lists of Aug.-Oct. 1752 and Feb.-April 1753 (Bellユs Register, MG 4, nos. 109-111).

         In late spring 1753, Frederic and Elizabeth removed to Lunenburg, N.S., with the other Foreign Protestants.  The メReturn of Armsモ of Dec. 1753 indicates that they resided at Steinfordユs Division, Lunenburg town (PANS, RG 1, vol. 382, no. 2).  In July 1754 the メReturn of the Divisionsモ states that Frederic Emoneau resided in that division, lot E-8.  In 1754 he received a 30-acre farm lot through the land lottery, drawing First Peninsula lot B-2 (PANS, RG 20, series C, vol. 90A, no. 1).

         In the livestock distribution of 1754 Frederic Emoneau received five sheep, one sow, and one goat, to be shared with Abtraham DuTour (RG 1, vol. 382, no. 9).  The Emoneaus appear on Lunenburg victualling lists for June 1755, February-May 1756, and January-May 1757 (Bellユs Register, MG 4); most settlers were on the victualling lists because the threat of Indian attacks kept many from clearing and farming their lots.  In 1756 Frederic participated in an expedition to Grand Pr to collect abandoned Acadian cattle, and in 1758 served in the militia on Indian patrols (PANS, RG 1, vol. 382, nos. 21, 27).

         The 1762 registry of town lots shows Frederic Emoneau as the owner of lot E-8 in Steinfordユs Division; in the registry of 30-acre farm lots taken the same year, he is shown as owning lot B-2, First Peninsula.  He received lot C-10, First Division 0n 3 Oct. 1763, in the first 300-acre lot drawing.  The Township Grant of 30 June 1784 conferred legal ownership of 360 acres on Frederic Emoneau (PANS, Micro: Places: Lunenburg: Lunenburg Allotment Books).

         On 30 March 1789 Frederic Emoneau filed メtrespass of debtモ charges in the Inferior Court of Common Pleas, Lunenburg, against George Knockle and Henry Meichsner, both of whom confessed and paid their debt (Inferior Court of Common pleas, PANS, RG 37 [LU], vol. 3, nos. 19, 20).

         Children of Frederic and second wife Elizabeth (-------) (Feindel), b. Lunenburg, bp. S.J.A.L.:

              Jean George2 Emoneau/Emonaud, bp. 29 March 1756, d. Lunenburg 28 Feb. 1778 (S.J.A.L.); m. S.J.A.L. 29 Sept. 1772 Mary Elizabeth Dauphine, bp. S.J.A.L. 11 July 1754, dau. of Jean and Maria Elizabeth (Banvard) Dauphine.  It is probable the Jean George was the posthumous son of Elizabeth (-------) (Feindel) Emoneauユs first husband, George Jacob Feindel, who appar. d. late in 1755.  Children b. Lunenburg, bp. S.J.A.L.: Catherine Marguerite Emoneau, b. 8 Nov., bp. 14 Nov. 1773; Jane Catherine Emoneau, b. 14 Feb., bp. 5 March 1775, d. Lunenburg 11 Dec. 1776, of smallpox; Catherine Elizabeth Emoneau, b. 10 June, bp. 1 Jan. 1777; Mary Margaret Emoneau, b. 10 June, bp. 17 June 1778, d. Mahone Bay, N.S. 1868 (M.B.B.C.), m. Lunenburg (D.R.L.) John Nicholas Eisenhauer, b. Northwest, N.S. 8 April, bp. S.J.A.L. 10 April 1768, d. Mahone Bay 1845, son of Johannes and Mary Elizabeth (Herman) (DeMett) Eisenhauer.  Of the Eisenhauersユ 16 ch., dau. Mary Elizabeth Isenhauer (1795-1868) m. John Peter Langille (1788-1865), son of Leoplod Frederic Langille and Catherine Bouteillier, a sister of the murderers.

              Susanna Catherine Emoneau, bp. 9 Nov. 1757, drowned at Lunenburg and bur. S.J.A.L. 16 Aug. 1767.

         3. Frederic Emoneau; see below.

 

      3. Frederic3 Emoneau/Emonaud (Frederic2, Samuel1), b. April, bp. S.J.A.L. 3 May 1759, d. First Peninsula 13 Feb. 1816 (S.J.A.L.).  He m. Lunenburg 25 Nov. 1777 Mary Elizabeth Wamboldt, bp. S.J.A.L. 25 March 1761, d. First Peninsula 11 Feb. 1833 (S.J.A.L.), dau. of Johann Adam and Barbara (ヤHawesユ/Haas) Wamboldt.  Children, b. First Peninsula, bp. S.J.A.L.:

         Maria Elizabeth Barbara4 Emeneau, b. 12 May, bp. 16 May 1779, d. ca. 1814; m. Z.L.L. 12 July 1795 Johann Casper Jung/Young, bp. S.J.A.L. 5 July 1769, son of Johann Leonard and Maria Elizabeth (Zinck) Jung. Children b. prop. Northwest or Youngユs Island, N.S., bp. Z.L.L.: Catherine Elizabeth Jung/Young, b. 12 Sept., bp. 24 Sept. 1796, m. S.J.A.L. 7 Sept. 1820 Johann Jacob Hiltz, b. Martinユs point, N.S. 9 June, bp. Z.L.L. 24 June 1796, son of Johann Philip Heinrich and Anna Catherine (Knickel) Hiltz; Catherine Jung/Young, b. 14 Aug., bp. 28 Aug. 179, m. Frederick Hiltz,b. Martinユs Point 7 Sept., bp. Z.L.L. 17 Oct. 1794, bro. Of J.J. Hiltz above; George Frederick Jung/Young, b. 16 Dec., bp. 24 Dec. 1802, m. Mary Ann Rehfus, b. Western Shore, N.S., in 1820, dau. of John Valentine and Mary Magdalene (Schweinheimer) Rehfus; George Casper Jung/Young, b. 18 Dec., bp. 28 Dec. 1804; Sophia Elizabeth Jung/Young, b. 16 Feb. 1807 (Z.L.L.), d. Martinユs Point, N.S. 4 Sept. 1879 (S.M.C.), m. Lunenburg 23 Dec. 1828 Johannes/John Hiltz, b. Martinユs Point 28 Aug, bp. Z.L.L. 11 Oct. 1804, bro. Of J.J. and Frederick Hiltz above; John Peter Jung/Young, b. 7 April, bp. 22 April 1809, m. Barbara Rehfus, b. Western Shore, N.S. 26 March 1816 (Z.L.L.), sister of Mary Ann Rehfus above; Anne Marie Jung/Young, b. 2 May, bp. 1 June 1811, n. Johann Heinrich/Henry Hiltz, b. Martinユs Point 6 Sept., bp. Z.L.L. 16 Sept. 1808, bro. Of J.J., Frederick and John Hiltz above; Heinrich Jung/Young, b. 12 May, bp. 5 June 1813, d. unm. in old age; Salome Jung/Young, b. 26 Nov., bp. 24 Dec. 1818.

         4. George Frederick Emoneau; see below.

              Mary Catherine Emoneau, b. 28 Nov., bp. 4 Dec. 1783.

              Mary Eve Emoneau, b. 2 April, bp. 5 April 1786, m. D.R.L. 17 Feb. 1807 Lorenz (Laurence) Wentzel, b. Centre Range, Lunenburg twp. 9 Aug., bp. Z.L.L. 14 Aug. 1784.  Children b. prob. Second Peninsula, bp. Z.L.L., except as noted: George Frederick Wentzel, b. 6 Dec., bp. D.R.L. 16 Dec. 1807; John Henry Wentzel, b. 17 Feb., bp. D.R.L. 26 Feb. 1811; Philipp Wentzel, b. 10 April, bp. 10 May 1813; Johann Jacob Wentzel, b. 25 Feb., bp. 4 March 1815; Johann Franz Wentzel, b. 6 Feb., 23 Feb. 1817; Catherine Elizabeth Wentzel, b. 27 Jan., bp. Lunenburg 27 Feb. 1819; Catherine Marianne Wentzel, b. 3 May, bp. 12 Aug. 1821; Conrad Wilhelm Wentzel, b. 26 March, bp. 17 May 1823.

              Anna Mary Emoneau, b. 19 March, bp. 26 March 1789, m. D.R.L. 23 April 1807 Rudolph Wagner/Wagener, b. Lunenburg 2 Oct., bp. there 14 Oct. 1781, son of Hans and Barbara (-------) Wagner.  Children, bp. Z.L.L., except as noted: Mary Anne Wagner, b. 18 Aug., bp. 3 Sept. 1811; Jacob Wagner, b. 14 March, bp. 20 April 1813; Benjamin Wagner, b. 23 Sept., bp. 25 Oct. 1814; Anne Catherine Barbara Wagner, b. 30 Aug., bp. 13 Sept. 1816; Thomas Wagner, b. 6 Nov., bp. 21 Nov. 1818; Wilhelm Wagner, b. 5 Dec., bp. 24 Dec. 1820; Edward Wagner, b. 22 Oct., bp. 6 Nov. 1823; and John Jonas Wagner, b. Upper LaHave, N.S., 26 Oct., bp. S.J.A.L. 8 Nov. 1828.

              Catherine Elizabeth Emoneau, b. 10 June, bp. Lunenburg 21 June 1792, d. First Peninsula 28 June 1793 (S.J.A.L.).

         5. John Henry Emoneau, see below.

              Anna Barbara Emoneau, b. 6 Dec., bp. 15 Dec. 1796, m. Z.L.L. 10 Feb. 1820 Andreas Rothenhauser, b. 8 April, Z.L.L. 18 April 1794, son of Georg Philip and Maria Barbara (Brandt) Rothenhauser.  Children bp. Z.L.L., except as noted: Andreas Rothenhauser [Jr.], b. 20 Dec. 1820, bp. 21 Jan. 1821; Wilhelm Rothenhauser, b. 15 June, bp. 4 July 1823; Maria Rothenhauser, b. 25 Dec. 1825, bp. 14 Jan. 1826; Jacob Elias Rothenhauser, 27 Dec. 1828, bp. 25 Jan 1829; Sophie Elizabeth Rothenhauser, b. 17 July, bp. 21 Aug. 1831; and Lucy Ann Rothenhauser, 27 Feb., bp. S.J.A.L. 31 March 1834. (Note: Rothenhauser has evolved to Rhodenhizer, Rodenhiser, and Rodenizer, etc.; the first form is the most common today.)

         6 John Daniel Emoneau/Emeneau; see below.

              Catherine Elizabeth Emoneau, b. 23 Feb., bp. 4 March 1803.

         7. Frederick Frank Emoneau; see below.

 

      4. George Frederick4 Emoneau/Emeno/Emmeno (Frederic3-2, Samuel1), b. First Peninsula 5 Nov., bp. S.J.A.L. 11 Nov. 1781; m. S.J.A.L. 12 Dec. 1805 Catherine Zwicker, b. Mahone Bay, N.S. 30 Oct. 1781 (D.R.L.), bp. S.J.A.L. 7 Nov. 1781, dau. og Georg Melchior and Judith Rosina (Bleysteiner) Zwicker.  Children b. First Peninsula:

              George Frederick Emeno, b. 25 Sept., bp. S.J.A.L. 25 Oct. 1806 (S.J.A.L.), m. Mary -------; Sarah Emeno, b. 24 Jan. 1808, bp. S.J.A.L. 10 Jan. 1810, m. First Peninsula 7 March 1733 (S.J.A.L.) Johann George Morash, b. メGlebelandモ (prob. near Garden Lots), N.S. 2 March, bp. Lunenburg 21 April 1803, son of Johann Michael and Catherine Barbara (Conrad) Morash; Joseph Emeno, b. 10 Jan., bp. Lunenburg 7 Feb. 1813, m. Mary Elizabeth Morasch; John Francis Emeno, b. 31 Oct., bp. Lunenburg 29 Nov. 1815, d. First Peninsula 18 Feb. 1818; Johann Franz Emeno, b. 3 April, bp. Z.L.L. 28 April 1819; Anna Emeno, b. 19 Nov 1822, bp. prob. First Peninsula that date (D.R.L.).

 

      5. John Henry4 Emeneau/Emeno/Eminot, b. First Peninsula, N.S. 17 May, bp. S.J.A.L. 30 May 1794, d. First Peninsula 24 June 1855 (S.J.A.L.), a farmer メdeprived of the use of his limbs for four yearsモ previous to his death (S.J.A.L.); m. (1) Z.L.L. 3 Aug. 1823 Rachel Regina Jung, b. 19 April, bp. Z.L.L. 19 May 1805, appar. d. post 11 June 1843; Mary Margaret Heckman, b. ca. 1801, d. Lunenburg, N.S. 20 Oct. 1878 (P.W., Sat., 26 Oct. 1878, vol. 31, no. 43, p. 344).  Children all by first wife, b. First Peninsula, bp. S.J.A.L., except as noted:

         [John] Benjamin Emeno, b. 25 Aug., bp. D.R.L. 2 Sept. 1824, d. Mount Stewart, P.E.I. 22 June 1872 (P.W., Sat., 20 July 1872, vol. 25, no. 29, p. 232); m. S.J.A.L. 30 July 1852 Sarah Jane Lord, b. Lunenburg 30 June, bp. S.J.A.L. 10 Aug. 1828; Henry Edward Emeno, b. Upper LaHave 20 July, bp. 25 Aug. 1826, d. First Peninsula 20 Feb. 1852 of consumption (S.J.A.L.); James Elias Emeno, b. 12 Sept., b. 11 Oct. 1829, d. First Peninsula 23 Dec. 1852 of consumption (S.J.A.L.); Arabella Emeno, b. 12 March, bp. 30 March 1831, d. First Peninsula 8 Jan. 1857 of consumption (S.J.A.L.), m. S.J.A.L. 19 Aug. 1852 William Anthony Rhuland, b. Lunenburg 2 Dec. 1831, bp. 19 Feb. 1832, son of Christian and Charlotte (------) Rhuland; Henry Isaac Emeno, b. 29 June, bp. 26 July 1834, d. First Peninsula 30 Sept. 1852 of consumption (S.J.A.L.); Sarah Anne Emeno, b. Second Peninsula 5 June, bp. 3 July 1836; Charles Alfred Emeno, b. Second Peninsula 23 July, bp. 8 Aug. 1839, d. 31 Jan. 1861 (O.F.C./S.J.A.L.); Victoria Anne Emeno, b. 11 June, bp. 24 Sep. 1843, m. S.J.A.L. 4 Nov. 1965 (also N.S. VRs) Henry Edward Oxner, b. Lunenburg 18 Dec. 1834 (S.J.A.L.), son of Casper and Barbara (Heckman) Oxner.

 

      6. John Daniel4 Emoneau/Emeneau, b. First Peninsula 17 March, bp. S.J.A.L. 20 March 1800; m. Z.L.L. 19 March 1823 Anna Maria Catherina Silber, b. First Peninsula 17 Sept., bp. Z.L.L. 21 Sept. 1801, d. Lunenburg 20 Oct. 1878 (Z.L.L.), dau. of Mechior and Regina (------) Silber.  Acc. to S.J.A.L. recs. John was a farmer, of First Peninsula.  Children all b. First Peninsula, bp. S.J.A.L., except as noted:

         Marianne Emeneau, b.25 Feb., Z.L.L. 6 March 1824; Heinrich Edmund Emeneau, b. 30 Jan., bp. Z.L.L. 6 Feb. 1826, m. Lunenburg Sara ------; John Thomas Emeneau, b. 14 June, bp. 29 June 1828, d. Lunenburg 24 Feb. 1912 (H.C.L.), m. Matilda Ann Mason, b. Masonユs Island, Lunenburg 29 June, bp. S.J.A.L. 18 July 1829, d. Lunenburg 3 Sept. 1903 (H.C.L.); Sophia Cartherine Emeneau, b. 3 Dec., bp. 24 Dec. 1830, m. S.J.A.L. 18 Dec. 1854 David Robar, b. Northwest Range 3 Jan. (S.J.A.L.), bp. 15 March 1835, son of Frederick and Mary Ann (Oichel) Robar; Isabella Emeneau, b. 11 Aug., bp. 31 Aug. 1833; Matilda Margery Emeneau, b. 25 Jan., bp. 14 Feb. 1836, d. Lunenburg 30 April 1859 (S.J.A.L.), m. S.J.A.L., as his second wife, 21 Nov. 1857 William Anthony Rhuland, widower of the brideユs cousin Arabella Emeno above; Charles Joshua Emeneau, b. 15 Nov., bp. 10 Dec. 1838, d. 25 Dec. 1920 (H.C.L.), m. Z.L.L. 11 Dec. 1862  Regina E. Arenburg, b. Lunenburg 18 July 1841, d. there 24 Feb. 1914 (H.C.L.); and Sarah Emeneau, b. 26 May, bp. 19 June 1841.

 

      7. Frederick Frank4 Emeneau, b. First Peninsula 13 Jan. 1807 (S.J.A.L.), d. Upper LaHave, N.S. 2 Jan. 1847 (S.J.A.L.); m. Sophia Catherine Hirtle, b. 2 Dec. 1808, bp. Z.L.L. 18 Jan. 1809, dau. of Jacob and Anne Christine (Naas) Hirtle.  Children all b. Upper LaHave, bp. S.J.A.L., except as noted:

         William Levi Emino, b.17 Sept., bp. 22 Oct. 1828, d. Upper LaHave 6 Sept. 1850; Henry Cyrus Emino, b. 10 Feb., bp. 30 April 1830, d. Dayspring, N.S. 21 April 1889 (Ds.C.), m. S.J.A.L. 19 May 1860 Sara Vienot, b. Bloskhouse (Maitland area), N.S. 6 July 1840, bp. S.J.A.L. 28 April 1841, d. Dayspring 4 Jan. 1897 (Ds.C.); Frederick Asaph Emino, b. 20 Aug., bp. 11 Sept. 1831, d. Bristol, N.S. 15 Jan. 1903 (Br.C./Liverpool Advance), m. Emeline ------, b. ca. 1844, d. Bristol 19 Jan. 1935 (Br.C.); Josias Emino, 17 Dec. 1833, bp. 16 Jan. 1834, d. LaHave (drowned while fishing) 23 May 1850 (S.J.A.L.); Leander Oliver Emino, b. 19 Aug., bp. 19 Nov. 1835, d. Liverpool, N.S. 3 Jan. 1911 (U.B.C.L.), m. there Mary E. Manthorne, b. ca. 1839, d. Liverpool 13 April 1897 (U.B.C.L.); Louisa Catherine Emino, b. 6 Dec. 1837., bp. Z.L.L. 4 Jan. 1838; Weighty [Matty] Cassandra Emino, b. 11 Sept., bp. 29 Nov. 1839, m. S.J.A.L (also N.S. VRs) 26 May 1866 Jacob Weagle, b. Lunenburg or Upper LaHave ca. 1837-38, son of George and Sara (------) Weagle; Henry Simeon Emino, b. 9 May, bp. 7 Aug. 1843, m. Falkland Road, Lunenburg Co., (in a Presbyterian church) 13 Feb. 1872 (N.S. VRs) Angeline Koch, b. prob. Upper LaHave ca. 1851, dau. of Enoch and Mary (-----) Koch of LaHave Summerside.

 

NOTES

         1. William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., 41 (1984): 358-59. 2. PANS, RG a, v. 443, nos. 19-21, 23.  3. Nova Scotia Genealogist 3 (1985): 64-72.  4. W.P. Bell, The メForeign Protestantsモ and the Settlement of Nova Scotia (1961), p. 193.  The shipBetty left Rotterdam 16 May 1752 and arrived in Nova Scotia 24 July 1752.  5. W.P. Bell, メBellユs Register of Lunenburg Families,モ PANS, MG 4, vol. 109.  6. Ibid., S.J.A.L.  7. S.J.A.L.  8. S.P.A.H.  9. A notable descendant of Joseph Contois was Francis A. Countway, for whom the Countway Library of Medicine at Harvard Medical School is named.  10.  James Stewart, The Trials of George Frederick Boutelier and John Boutelier for the Murder of Frederik Eminaud (Halifax: John Howe, 1791), pp. 4, 9. [no pp.5-8]  11. Ibid., pp. 18-19.  12. Ibid., p. 20.  13. Ibid., p. 21.  14. Ibid., pp. 21-22.  15. Ibid., p. 22.  16. Ibid., p. 23.  17. Ibid.  18. Ibid., pp. 24-25.  19. Ibid., pp. 38-39.  20. Ibid., p. 39.  21. M.B. Desbrisay, History of the County of Lunenburg (1895), pp. 501-2.

 

      Technical services assistant Kenneth S. Paulsen contributed メThe Deladeray (Deladoey) Family of Switzerland and Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, 1750-1830モ to NEXUS 10 [1993]: 152-55 and メA Deladeray Update (12:114).  A Fulbright Scholar and doctoral candidate at the University of Maine, he is descendant of Sophia Elizabeth (Jung/Young) Hiltz (daughter of Johann and Maria Elizabeth Barbara [Emeneau] Jung); of John Frederick Bouteillier (a brother of the murderers); and of their first cousin Marie Elizabeth (Bouteillier) Eichel.